As political ads begin to shout at us, as we draw closer to the midterm elections in November, there seems to be a new round of questioning about how Christians should vote, or how they should think about political issues, or even whether Christians should take part in the political process at all. Last month the Christian Millennial magazine Relevant published an editorial titled “Voting Your Faith: How Should Christians Vote?” The New York Times published an Op-Ed this week by the Rev. Timothy Keller, founding pastor of Manhattan’s Redeemer Presbyterian Church, titled “How Do Christians Fit Into the Two-Party System? They Don’t.” At the same time that “Christian” is declining as any sort of default identity in our culture, the post-Christian world struggles to place Christians into some sort of political, ideological box that they can understand. Christians are conservative, right? Well, then, Christians are pro-life, right? Even more narrowly defined traditions like Evangelicals, Catholics, and Mainline Protestants are far from monolithic, and one is often more likely to find common ground across denominational and party divisions than within the group with which one is supposedly identified.
Following God has never overlaid neatly with ideologies or political movements. In the Old Testament, Joseph and Daniel held high posts in pagan governments that were inimical to their religion. There were debates in the early Church about whether Christians could cooperate with the Empire at all, and later debates over whether a good Christian could ever oppose a duly anointed earthly King or Emperor. As late as the 19th Century, popes wrote encyclicals condemning the errors of rationalism, modernism, liberalism, and “Americanism” which included religious liberty and the separation of church and state.
Modern political ideologies tend to understand the world and divide themselves in ways that don’t necessarily align with the concerns of the Gospel. Valuing all human life as created in the image and likeness of God may draw a person to oppose abortion and euthanasia on one hand, while also opposing the death penalty, working for prison reform and universal health care. A voter presented with the platforms of the primary parties or ideologies is unlikely to find one that aligns completely with her Gospel priorities, so is stuck with what New Monastic writer Shane Claiborne calls “choosing the evil of two lessers.” 
It may seem obvious to many of us that Jesus would definitely vote the same way we do. After all, Jesus commanded us to love our neighbor as ourselves, and preached Good News to the poor. Of course Jesus would vote for N. But there are many ways to love our neighbor. Jesus healed the sick and fed the hungry, but he did not establish a health plan or a welfare state. Is it more loving to teach our neighbor how we think he should live so that he might be happier and healthier, or to enable him in a life that he has chosen, but which looks unsustainable to us? Even when we agree on the fundamental message of love, people of good will may faithfully disagree on how to live out that message. Yet almost daily, in the press and even in our own community, our own parish, I hear people disparage the faith of those with whom they disagree: How could someone call themselves a Christian and vote for X?
Jesus taught us to render unto Caesar what belongs to Caesar, and unto God what belongs to God. That has led some Christians and some religious leaders to decide that it is not appropriate for Christians to participate in politics. In a democratic republic like ours, though, participating in the political process is one of the primary ways that we can effect change in the world, one of the ways that we can love our neighbor. By the same token, some non-religious people insist that it is inappropriate for a political leader to be guided by the teachings of religion in her leadership. For those of us who are called to seek and serve Christ in all persons, however, it is inconceivable that that call would not inform every decision and every interaction in our lives.
As followers of Jesus, we do not have the luxury of sitting out the political process, withdrawing to our monasteries to keep ourselves unspotted from the rough realities of human life. Neither may we demonize those who disagree with us and insist that ours is the only right way. When different ideologies and labels overlap but don’t align, we must be sure that our primary identity is not that of Republican or Democrat, of Progressive or Conservative, of Jew or Greek, slave or free, male or female. If we belong to Christ, then we are one in Christ Jesus.
 Pius IX, Encyclical Quanta Cura and Syllabus Errorum (1864), and Leo XIII, Encyclical Longinqua oceani (1895), accessed at Wikipedia.org, October 2, 2018.